Surbhi Sooni A passionate product leader and strategist.

What is rapid application development (RAD)?

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What Is Rapid Application Development (RAD)?

The history of rapid application development (RAD) goes back to the 1970s and ’80s, when the plan-driven waterfall framework was quite popular. However, software development was a radical change for the industry in that era.

It didn’t take long for companies to learn that the one-size-fits-all frameworks and traditional, plan-driven waterfall model that worked for manufacturing physical products weren’t good for developing software. The RAD methodology was tailored specifically for software development teams.

Nowadays, companies around the world embrace agile frameworks and methodologies. But before agile could run, RAD walked onto the scene first to emphasize the need for speed and user feedback in software development — which, not coincidentally, are among the core values and principles of agile.

In this article, we will explore rapid application development (RAD) in detail.

Table of contents

What is rapid application development (RAD)?

Rapid application development (RAD) is an adaptive software development model based on feedback and prototyping. RAD is focused on gathering requirements through workshops or focus groups and early testing of prototypes by the customer.

RAD is an agile software development approach that emphasizes adaptive processes more than the sequential approach of a waterfall model. It is especially suited for software products requiring UI, UX, short release time, low budget, and fast speed.

RAD is preferred when customer feedback is involved throughout the product design, development, and testing life cycle. To deliver the product, RAD emphasizes time-boxed, incremental delivery of the product.

James Martin from IBM developed the RAD framework in 1980. In 1991, he formally published the concept in a book titled Rapid Application Development, which emphasizes the concise development cycle.

4 phases of the RAD framework

The RAD framework consists of four phases:

  1. Requirement planning — The product team defines the scope along with customer inputs, and the scope of the project is outlined
  2. User design — The product design and development team create prototypes and continuously refine them based on user feedback. This approach allows the team to save much of their future effort and capacity in building the product
  3. Build and feedback — The product team rapidly constructs multiple components that are iteratively improved based on user feedback and testing to satisfy client expectations. Alterations and changes are suggested to address the right customer problem.
  4. Cutover — Multiple software components are integrated and prepared for launch. This phase also involves rigorous testing and user onboarding to ensure the continued delivery of the product’s quality

Rapid application development vs. waterfall

The primary difference between rapid application development (RAD) and other software development methods is speed. The table below compares RAD and the waterfall model:

RAD Waterfall
Iterative process based on prototyping Sequential phases and intensive planning
Changes are expected and adjusted anytime Changing requirements is not easily accommodated
Continuous client feedback throughout the product lifecycle Client feedback collected at the end
Prioritizes UI/UX over detailed requirements for faster product development Detailed requirements documented at the beginning, no further changes allowed

Benefits and advantages of RAD

By focusing on quick iterations and frequent feedback, RAD aims to accelerate the development process and deliver high-quality software in less time. Implementing RAD principles into the product development lifecycle can lead to myriad benefits, including:

Improved product quality

The constant feedback loop through prototypes makes software usable and value-driven. Unlike sequential, waterfall-driven processes, this brings quality starting from the early stage of product development. By incorporating agile methods, RAD helps the team focus on solving customer problems, validating assumptions, and addressing technical problems.

Reduced risk

RAD helps you identify early risk factors around effort, cost, complaints, etc. Prioritizing features and solutions based on the complexity of design and prototyping mitigates key risk factors at the early stage. The foundation of RAD is speed and user feedback; therefore, de-risking is an important part of the RAD model.

Reduced cost

The agile and incremental approach removes failures such as big-budget waterfall products. Prototyping supports killing bad ideas before they are built, and this radical approach saves the company’s cost, time, and effort.

Increased flexibility

Change is good, especially when it’s based on user feedback. The RAD framework supports the concept of modularization and give you the flexibility to make changes as needed.

Another important aspect of RAD is that it is not straight and narrow; it accommodates implementing changes anytime. RAD emphasizes the concept of constructive feedback without following strict and procedural templates.

Improved productivity

Effective time management is essential for product managers to meet stakeholder expectations, stay within budget, and keep moving the product toward its envisioned objectives. Quick reviews and fast decision-making enhance the team’s productivity.

Code reuse

RAD is based on modularization, which focuses on reusing code, templates, tools, and processes. This also improves the reusability of components, which saves time and cost.

Disadvantages of RAD

While rapid application development (RAD) offers a range of benefits, including faster project completion, increased flexibility, and enhanced collaboration, it is not without its downsides.

In this section, we will explore some of the disadvantages of RAD and how they can impact the development process. By understanding these potential challenges, you can make informed decisions about whether RAD is the right approach for your organization’s software development needs.

Rapid application development can present problems during the product development lifecycle because it is:


RAD requires collaboration across cross-functional teams and stakeholders. If an organizer is not well-versed in agile and cross-collaboration techniques, it can become confusing and overwhelming for the team.

Unlike waterfall models, where customer and development teams work in silos, RAD requires frequent cycles of prototyping and inputs from all stakeholders. This means stakeholders must meet regularly and commit to collaborating and communicating frequently and when needed.

The requirement of a high level of commitment from all stakeholders is one of the pitfalls of using RAD for small projects and products.

Dependent on skilled resources

RAD involves frequent changes and iterations, which requires strong reliance on a skilled technical team. Inexperienced developers can cause problems in a RAD environment.


All stakeholders should adhere to strict deadlines and timelines to make the project successful. Any deviation can undermine RAD’s success.

The trouble is that, from a delivery perspective, RAD is open-ended; the measure of success is simply a finished product.

Less scalable

Scalability is a major challenge associated with the RAD methodology. Prototyping and continuous testing work well for small and medium projects because RAD suggests focusing more on current user needs than scalability.

However, scalability is an essential aspect of product-led growth development, and methodologies such as SAFe, agile, Extreme Programming, lean practices, etc., are generally a better fit than RAD for large projects.

When growth and scalability are critical product considerations, you’ll generally want to choose a more versatile framework than RAD.

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Because RAD is customer-driven, it demands the availability of resources at nearly every step of the development lifecycle. From gathering continuous inputs to developing prototypes, building, and testing, RAD is an intensive endeavor.

How to know if RAD is right for you

Choosing the right development team is critical to successfully implementing the rapid application development methodology. Speed, time, and quality are crucial considerations.

A mature and experienced team of developers is key to making any RAD initiative successful. Therefore, the product manager must carefully select highly skilled individuals to perform the activities involved in rapid application development. If you don’t have the right skills and competencies at your disposal, you might be better off with a more straightforward framework.

Quality control is another important consideration. RAD is preferred for working software where robustness is prioritized over perfection. Achieving robustness and quality with speed requires a rigorous approach throughout the RAD process, including prototyping, testing and development, and implementation.

Rapid application development is well-suited for small and medium-sized projects where the application is intended to be delivered incrementally. It requires a highly skilled and multi-talented small team with strong communication and diverse skill sets. If communication and collaboration falter, it may result in failure.

A timeline of 2–3 months is ideal for RAD, and most importantly, the technical risk should be low. It is particularly suitable for web-based applications because prototypes can be delivered as soon as they are available for continuous feedback and optimization.

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Surbhi Sooni A passionate product leader and strategist.

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