Esteban Herrera Family man, Java and JavaScript developer. Swift and VR/AR hobbyist. Like books, movies, and still trying many things.

4 alternatives to Moment.js for internationalizing dates

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Date formatting is one of the most important aspects when preparing an application to be used in different languages.

Moment.js is one of the most used JavaScript libraries to format and manipulate dates that we can use for this purpose. However, in some cases, some things about this library (like its size or the way it is structured) might make you wonder if there are some alternatives out there.

In this article, I’m going to review four alternatives to Moment.js regarding date internationalization:

I’m going to focus on converting dates to strings in different formats for different locales, including relative time.

Let’s start with the JavaScript Internationalization API.

JavaScript Internationalization API

Intl is a global object that acts as the namespace of the ECMAScript Internationalization API. Regarding dates, this object provides the following constructors:

  • Intl.DateTimeFormat, which provides date and time formatting
  • Intl.RelativeTimeFormat, which provides language-sensitive easy-to-read phrases for dates and timestamps

These constructors take two optional arguments, the locale and an object with options to customize the output. For example:

let rtf = new Intl.RelativeTimeFormat('en-GB', { style: 'long' });
let dtf = new Intl.DateTimeFormat('de');

The locale argument is a string that represents a BCP 47 language tag, which is composed of the following parts:

  • Language code (ISO 639-1/639-2). For example, el (modern greek)
  • Script code (ISO 15924). For example, Grek (greek)
  • Country code (ISO 3166). For example, GR (Greece)
  • Variant (from, search for “Type: variant”). For example, polyton (polytonic greek)
  • Extensions (from Unicode, more information here). For example, u-nu-native (native digits)

Here’s an example with all the parts together:

let rtf = new Intl.RelativeTimeFormat('el-Grek-GR-polyton-u-nu-native');

Only the first part (language code) is required, and you can pass an array of strings to define fallback languages:

We made a custom demo for .
No really. Click here to check it out.

// Requests Dutch as the primary language and if it is not available, it requests french
let dtf = new Intl.DateTimeFormat(['nl', 'fr'])

If a locale is not provided, the locale of the runtime environment is used.

About the second argument, the options object, it varies between constructors.

Intl.DateTimeFormat takes options such as the style of the date (full, long, medium, and short), whether to use either a 12-hour or 24-hour time or format the representation of parts of the day like the year, month, weekday, etc.

In the documentation page of Intl.DateTimeFormat, you can learn more about all the options you can use to customize this object.

About Intl.RelativeTimeFormat, the options object only has the following properties:

  • localeMatcher, the locale matching algorithm to use. The possible values are lookup (from the more specific to the less specific, if en-us is not available, en is chosen) and best fit (the default value, if en-us is not available, something like en-uk can be chosen)
  • numeric, to format the output message. The possible values are always (for example, 2 hours ago) or auto, which doesn’t always allow numeric values in the output (for example, yesterday)
  • style, to format the length of the output message. The possible values are long, short, and narrow

Once you have an object of type Intl.DateTimeFormat or Intl.RelativeTimeFormat, you can use the methods format() or formatToParts() (that returns an array with the parts of the output) to format a date.

In the case of Intl.DateTimeFormat, the methods take the Date object to format:

const date = new Date(Date.UTC(2014, 8, 19, 14, 5, 0));
const options = {
   dateStyle: 'short',
   timeStyle: 'full',
   hour12: true,
   day: 'numeric',
   month: 'long',
   year: '2-digit',
   minute: '2-digit',
   second: '2-digit',
// Sample output: 19 septembre 14 à 05:00
console.log(new Intl.DateTimeFormat("fr", options).format(date));
// Sample output: 19. September 14, 05:00
console.log(new Intl.DateTimeFormat("de-AT", options).format(date));
/* Sample output: [{"type":"day","value":"19"},{"type":"literal","value":" "},{"type":"month","value":"settembre"},{"type":"literal","value":" "},{"type":"year","value":"14"},{"type":"literal","value":", "},{"type":"minute","value":"05"},{"type":"literal","value":":"},{"type":"second","value":"00"}] */
console.log(new Intl.DateTimeFormat("it", options).formatToParts(date));

Notice that if you only specify a few date-time components in the options object, these will be the ones present in the output:

const date = new Date(Date.UTC(2014, 08, 19, 14, 5, 0));
const options = {
   year: '2-digit',
// Output: 14
console.log(new Intl.DateTimeFormat("en", options).format(date));

In the case of Intl.RelativeTimeFormat, format() takes the numeric value to use in the message and a second argument to indicate the unit of this value (like year or second, in either singular or plural forms):

const options = {
   localeMatcher: 'best fit',
   numeric: 'auto',
   style: 'short',
// Output: last mo.
console.log(new Intl.RelativeTimeFormat("en-CA", options).format(-1, 'month'));
// Output: la semana pasada
console.log(new Intl.RelativeTimeFormat("es-ES", options).format(-1, 'week'));
/* Output: [{"type":"integer","value":"60","unit":"minute"},{"type":"literal","value":" 分鐘前"}] */
console.log(new Intl.RelativeTimeFormat("zh-TW", options).formatToParts(-60, 'minutes'));

Also, notice the difference between using the always and auto values for the numeric property:

// Output: in 0 days
console.log(new Intl.RelativeTimeFormat("en", {numeric: 'always'}).format(0, 'day'));
// Output: today
console.log(new Intl.RelativeTimeFormat("en", {numeric: 'auto'}).format(0, 'day'));

You can try and modify all of the above examples here and here, but depending on the browser you’re using, you could get some errors.

Most of the functionality of Intl.DateTimeFormat is well-supported in modern browsers (more info here), however, Intl.RelativeTimeFormat is fully supported only from Chrome 71 and Firefox 70 (no support in Safari or Edge at the time of this writing).

You can use a polyfill, but you’ll have to create the object differently:

const myLocale = /* Import JSON file for the choosen locale */;
const localeTag = /* Tag for the above locale */;
const options = { /* Options object */ };
new RelativeTimeFormat(localeTag, options).format(3, 'day');

You can try this example here.

So as you can see, Intl.RelativeTimeFormat is similar to moment.duration().humanize():

moment.duration(-1, 'weeks').humanize(true); // a week ago

If you’re used to calculating relative times from now or calendar times relative to a given reference time the way Moment.js does:

moment('20140919', 'YYYYMMDD').fromNow(); // 5 years ago
moment().add(5, 'days').calendar(); // Tuesday at 1:15 PM

You’ll need to manually calculate the difference between the two dates.

Nothing beats using native features, but if this can become a problem, there are other options.


Luxon is a library created by one of Moment’s maintainers, so it borrows many ideas from it while offering improvements in some areas.

For internationalization purposes, you can think of Luxon as a wrapper for Intl.DateTimeFormat and Intl.RelativeTimeFormat.

For example, one way to format dates according to a locale is by first setting the locale and then using the method toFormat(fmt:string, opts: Object) along with date-time tokens from this table:

// Sample output: 2019 сентябрь
console.log(DateTime.local().setLocale('ru').toFormat('yyyy MMMM'));

You can also pass the locale in the options object that the method can take as an argument:

// Output: 2019 сентябрь
console.log(DateTime.local(2018, 9, 1).toFormat('yyyy MMMM', { locale: "ru" }));

Or if you’re using methods like fromObject, fromISO, fromHTTP, fromFormat, or fromRFC2822, you can set the locale at creation time:

const italianDate = DateTime.fromISO("2014-09-19", { locale: "it" });
// Output: 2014 settembre 19
console.log(italianDate.toFormat("yyyy MMMM dd"));

However, the recommended way is to use the methods toLocaleString() and toLocaleParts() that returns a localized string representing the date and an array with the individual parts of the string, respectively.

These methods are equivalent to the methods format() and formatToParts() of Intl.DateTimeFormat, and in fact, they take the same options object (along with some presets, such as DateTime.DATE_SHORT, among others):

const date = DateTime.utc(2014, 9, 1, 14, 5, 0);
const options = {
  dateStyle: "short",
  timeStyle: "full",
  hour12: true,
  day: "numeric",
  month: "long",
  year: "2-digit",
  minute: "2-digit",
  second: "2-digit"
// Output: 1 septembre 14 à 05:00 
// Output: 1. September 14, 05:00 
/* Output: [{"type":"day","value":"1"},{"type":"literal","value":" "},{"type":"month","value":"settembre"},{"type":"literal","value":" "},{"type":"year","value":"14"},{"type":"literal","value":", "},{"type":"minute","value":"05"},{"type":"literal","value":":"},{"type":"second","value":"00"}] */
  JSON.stringify(date.setLocale("it").toLocaleParts(options), null, 3)
// Output: 2:05 PM
// Output: 01/09/2014 
console.log(date.toLocaleString({ locale: 'pt' }));

This means that:

  • Luxon can be configured using the same BCP 47 locale strings as the Intl object
  • If the Intl object is not available in your target browser, this part of the library won’t work properly (for Node.js applications you might need to take some extra steps to set up the library)
  • Regarding internationalization, Luxon acts as a wrapper for the JavaScript Internationalization API, but it sets the locale at the level of the DateTime Luxon object (more info here)

On the other hand, the methods toRelative (that returns a string representation of a given time relative to now, by default) and toRelativeCalendar (that returns a string representation of a given date relative to today, by default) are the ones that provide functionality similar to Intl.RelativeTimeFormat:

// Sample output: in 23 hours 
console.log(DateTime.local().plus({ days: 1 }).toRelative());
// Sample output: tomorrow
console.log(DateTime.local().plus({ days: 1 }).toRelativeCalendar());
// Sample output: in 1 Tag 
console.log(DateTime.local().plus({ days: 1 }).toRelative({ locale: "de" }));
// Sample output: morgen 
console.log(DateTime.local().plus({ days: 1 }).toRelativeCalendar({ locale: "de" }));
// Sample output: il y a 1 semaine 
console.log(DateTime.local().setLocale("fr").minus({ days: 9 }).toRelative({ unit: "weeks" }));
// Sample output: la semaine dernière 
console.log(DateTime.local().setLocale("fr").minus({ days: 9 }).toRelativeCalendar({ unit: "weeks" }));

Unlike Intl.RelativeTimeFormat, if your browser doesn’t support this API, the above methods won’t throw an error, the only problem is that they will not be translated to the appropriate language.

You can try all of the above examples here.


Date-fns is another popular JavaScript library for date processing and formatting. Version 2, the latest at the time of this writing, only comes in the form of an NPM package, so if you want to use it directly in a browser, you’ll have to use a bundler like Browserify.

This library contains around sixty different locales (here you can see all of them). To use one or more locales, you need to import them like this:

import { es, enCA, it, ptBR } from 'date-fns/locale'

The functions that accept a locale as argument are the following:

  • format, which returns the formatted date, taking as parameters the date, a string representing the pattern to format the date (based on the date fields symbols of the Unicode technical standard #35), and an object with options like the locale and the index of the first day of the week
  • formatDistance, which returns the distance between the given dates in words, taking as parameters the dates to compare and an object with options like the locale or whether to include seconds
  • formatDistanceToNow is the same as formatDistance but only takes one date (that will be compared to now)
  • formatDistanceStrict is the same as formatDistance but without using helpers like almost, over, or less than. The options object has properties to force a time unit and to specify the way to round partial units
  • formatRelative, which represents the date in words relative to a given base date. It can also take an options object as an argument, to set the locale and the index of the first day of the week

Here are some examples:

import {
 } from "date-fns";
 import { es, enCA, ro, it, ptBR } from "date-fns/locale";

 // Output: septiembre / 19
 console.log(format(new Date(), "MMMM '/' yy", { locale: es }));
 // Output: in less than 10 seconds
     new Date(2019, 8, 1, 0, 0, 15),
     new Date(2019, 8, 1, 0, 0, 10),
     { locale: enCA, includeSeconds: true, addSuffix: true }
 // Output: less than 10 seconds ago
     new Date(2019, 8, 1, 0, 0, 10),
     new Date(2019, 8, 1, 0, 0, 15),
     { locale: enCA, includeSeconds: true, addSuffix: true }
 // Output: circa 15 ore (assuming now is 9/20/2019 15:00)
 console.log(formatDistanceToNow(new Date(2019, 8, 20), { locale: ro }));
 // Output: 0 minuti
     new Date(2019, 8, 1, 0, 0, 15),
     new Date(2019, 8, 1, 0, 0, 10),
     { locale: it, unit: "minute" }
 // Output: un minuto
     new Date(2019, 8, 1, 0, 0, 10),
     new Date(2019, 8, 1, 0, 0, 15),
     { locale: it, unit: "minute", roundingMethod: "ceil" }
 // Output: amanhã às 14:48
 console.log(formatRelative(addDays(new Date(), 1), new Date(), { locale: ptBR }));

formatRelative is usually used with helpers to add or subtract different units of time like addWeeks, subMonths, addQuarters, among others.

Also, consider that if the distance between the dates is more than six days, formatRelative will return the date given as the first argument:

// If today is September 20, 2019 the output will be 27/09/2019
console.log(formatRelative(addDays(new Date(), 7), new Date(), { locale: ptBR }));

You can try all of the above examples here.


Day.js is a lightweight library alternative to Moment.js.

By default, Day.js comes with the United States English locale. To use other locales, you need to import them like this:

import 'dayjs/locale/pt';
import localeDe from 'dayjs/locale/de'; // With a custom alias for the locale object

dayjs.locale('pt') // use Portuguese locale globally
// To use the locale just in certain places
console.log( dayjs('2018-4-28', { locale: 'pt' }) );

Here you can find the list of all supported locales.

In the above example, the format() method returns a string with the formatted date. It can take a string with the tokens to format the date in a specific way:

// Sample output: September 2019, Samstag
    .format('MMMM YYYY, dddd')

Here is the list of all available formats.

However, much of the advanced functionality of Day.js comes from plugins that you can load based on your needs. For example, the UTC plugin adds methods to get a date in UTC and local time:

import dayjs from "dayjs";
import utc from "dayjs/plugin/utc";


console.log(dayjs.utc().format()); // Sample output: 2019-09-21T11:31:55Z

Regarding internationalization, we can use the AdvancedFormat, LocalizedFormat, RelativeTime, and Calendar plugins.

The AdvancedFormat and LocalizedFormat plugins add more formatting options to the format() method (you can see all the options in the plugins documentation page):

// ...

// Plugins
import advancedFormat from "dayjs/plugin/advancedFormat";
import localizedFormat from "dayjs/plugin/localizedFormat";

// Load plugins

// Advanced format options
// If today is 2019/09/21 at 12:00 PM, the output will be 3 21º 12 12 1569087454 1569087454869
    .format("Q Do k kk X x")
// Localized format options
// If today is 2019/09/21 at 12:00 PM, the output will be Sábado, 21 de Setembro de 2019 às 12:00 

The RelativeTime plugin adds methods to format dates to relative time strings:

  • .fromNow(withoutSuffix?: boolean) returns a string representing the relative time from now
  • .from(compared: Dayjs, withoutSuffix?: boolean) returns a string representing the relative time from X
  • .toNow(withoutSuffix?: boolean) returns a string representing the relative time to now
  • .to(compared: Dayjs, withoutSuffix?: boolean) returns a string representing the relative time to X

Here are some examples:

// ...
import relativeTime from "dayjs/plugin/relativeTime";

// Load plugin

// Assuming now is 2019-09-21 at 12:00 PM
// Output: in einem Jahr 
// Output: einem Jahr 
    .from(dayjs("2018-09-21"), true)
// Output: vor einem Jahr 
// Output: vor 2 Jahren 
// Output: vor 11 Jahren 

The Calendar plugin adds the .calendar method to display calendar time (within a distance of seven days). It doesn’t seem to localize the output:

// ...
import calendar from "dayjs/plugin/calendar";

// Load plugin

// Assuming now is 2019-09-21 at 12:00 PM
// Output: Yesterday at 12:00 PM

However, it allows you to manually customize the output labels for the same day, next day, last weekend, and next week and everything else using string literals (wrapped in square brackets) and date-time format tokens:

// Assuming now is 2019-09-21 at 12:00 PM
// The output is Hoje às 12:00
  dayjs().calendar(dayjs("2019-09-21"), {
    sameDay: "[Hoje às] h:m",
    nextDay: "[Amanhã]",
    nextWeek: "dddd",
    lastDay: "[Ontem]",
    lastWeek: "[Último] dddd",
    sameElse: "DD/MM/YYYY"

You can try all of the above examples here.


Moment.js is a robust and mature library for date processing, however, it may be overkill for some projects. In this article, I have compared the way four popular libraries handle date formatting in the context of internationalization.

The features provided by the JavaScript Internationalization API may be enough for simple use cases, but if you need a higher-level API (e.g, relative times) and other features such as timezones or helper methods for adding or subtracting units of time, you may want to consider one of the other libraries reviewed in this article.

Finally, here are some links that you might find useful:

Happy coding!

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    Esteban Herrera Family man, Java and JavaScript developer. Swift and VR/AR hobbyist. Like books, movies, and still trying many things.

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