Anjana Rao Product and tech leader. Reader. Traveller. Author. Coach.

What is containerization? Overview, definition, benefits, and tools

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What Is Containerization? Definition, Benefits, Technologies

Containerization, also known as container stuffing or container loading, is a relatively new concept in the realm of software development. It refers to the process of abstracting software code and its necessary libraries.

Containers are lightweight runtime executables that are both resource-efficient and portable. With the rise of various deployment environments — particularly those related to cloud computing — containerization has gained significant popularity.

Table of contents

What is containerization?

By definition, containerization is the process of packaging all required files and libraries with the software code for deployment as a “container.” This approach abstracts the software, making it agnostic to its environment and infrastructure (e.g., cloud, edge, physical server, etc.).

Even if you don’t have extensive technical experience, gaining a basic understanding of containerization can greatly enhance your ability to collaborate effectively with software developers. Here’s a concise rundown of what you need to know:


Containerization is a process that packages an application along with its necessary libraries, dependencies, and environment into one container. This allows the application to run consistently across various computing environments.


Containers are remarkably efficient when it comes to using system resources. They’re lightweight because they share the host system’s operating system kernel and don’t require running a full operating system for each application like a virtual machine does.

Portability and consistency

One of the primary advantages of containerization is its portability. Because a container includes everything needed for the application to run, it ensures consistency across all environments — development, testing, and production. This reduces issues where an application works in one environment but not another, a problem often described as “it works on my machine.”

Scalability and microservices

Containers are ideal for microservices architecture, where an application is divided into smaller, independent services. This arrangement allows for easy scaling because specific services can be scaled up or down as needed without impacting the entire application.

Containerization tools: Docker vs. Kubernetes

With the rise in popularity of containerization, several platforms have emerged, most notably Docker, developed by Docker Inc., and Kubernetes, originally launched by Google.


Docker is an open-source platform that functions as a container runtime. It facilitates the execution of a single runtime library along with its source code, executable files, dependencies, etc. Docker provides a way to containerize applications, allowing developers to build and deploy applications swiftly. However, with the advent of platforms like Kubernetes, Docker is gradually being phased out.


In contrast, Kubernetes is a platform that supports multiple containerization services. In other words, it enables container orchestration. This feature allows for managing workloads across multiple applications. Google Cloud initially introduced Kubernetes.

Docker vs. Kubernetes

Both Docker and Kubernetes are open-source containerization tools that facilitate abstraction of the deployment environment. However, they’re distinguished by key differences in application instances, service type, migration and scaling, dependency on other services, and automation.

The table below highlights some notable differences between Docker and Kubernetes:

Docker Kubernetes
Application instances Allows a single application instance Allows multiple application instances
Service type Is a containerization service Is a container management service
Migration and scaling Facilitates easy migration of applications across different environments Enables scaling of applications
Dependency on other services Requires management by Kubernetes or other container orchestration systems Can operate independently without Docker
Automation and health monitoring Needs orchestration technologies for automation; requires Kubernetes or similar systems for health monitoring Provides automated management of applications using built-in commands; handles health monitoring of containers

When should you consider containerizing your application?

Here are some use cases and examples where Kubernetes-based container orchestration deployment has been successful:

  • Deployment of large applications — Kubernetes’ features support large-scale application deployment. Its load-balancing capabilities minimize downtime and effectively handle scenarios such as power surges which could otherwise cause significant downtime
  • Cloud-native microservices-based architecture app deployment — For deploying applications with microservices-based architecture, Kubernetes is ideal. With microservice-to-microservice communication, it can distribute resources across various microservices
  • Hybrid cloud deployment — Given its ability to abstract the environment, Kubernetes is perfectly suited for hybrid and multicloud deployments while maintaining environment-agnostic capabilities
  • Big data application deployment — Platforms like Spark and Hadoop require substantial data processing resources. In such cases, Kubernetes proves to be an excellent choice for big data deployments due to its resource optimization and scaling abilities

Challenges and limitations of containerization

Despite its numerous advantages, containerization is not without challenges and limitations. While some of these can be mitigated or circumvented with appropriate strategies, others are inherent to the technology.

  • Increased deployment complexity — Containerization can introduce a degree of complexity into the deployment process. This complexity may lead to performance issues due to bottlenecks, problems with auto-scaling, or difficulties migrating ARM-based architecture
  • Dependency on container management tools — Containers function effectively only when paired with managed services or container orchestration tools like Kubernetes. If these management tools fail, it could result in downtime for the container services — a dependency that represents a significant limitation
  • Space constraints — Containers can consume considerable storage space due to their complex management requirements. This factor could potentially limit their use in environments where storage is at a premium
  • Security concerns — The shared kernel architecture of containers raises security concerns. If one container’s security is compromised, it could potentially affect other containers running on the same kernel

Virtualization vs. Containerization

Virtualization and containerization are both key concepts in software product development, but they cater to distinct needs and scenarios.


Virtualization uses software (a hypervisor) to emulate hardware and create isolated virtual machines (VMs), each with its own operating system. It’s flexible, capable of managing resources efficiently, and can support multiple OS environments. However, running multiple OS instances can be resource-intensive.


Containerization involves packaging software code and its dependencies to run uniformly across any infrastructure. Containers share the host system’s OS kernel, leading to efficient resource utilization and faster start-up times. However, they lack a full OS and may not suit applications needing complete OS control.

Differences between virtualization and containerization

As a product manager, picking between virtualization and containerization depends on your application’s requirements and the resources available to you.

The table below highlights key differences between virtualization and containerization:

Virtualization Containerization
Resource efficiency Lower Higher
Startup speed Slower Faster
OS Control Full Limited
Isolation Full Partial
Consistent operation Varying Consistent

Conclusion and key takeaways

For product managers looking to deploy applications efficiently while maximizing scalability and minimizing resource usage, containerization is not just a current trend — it’s the future.

As we’ve explored throughout this article, containerization has revolutionized application deployment and management by abstracting applications from their environment.

We’ve discussed various aspects of container deployment, different container and orchestration tools, best practices for adopting containerization, as well as the challenges and limitations associated with this technology.

Despite these challenges, however, containerization offers an efficient method for deploying and scaling applications. It represents an evolution beyond traditional virtualization technologies by providing a more lightweight solution that delivers superior performance with minimal resource overhead.

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Anjana Rao Product and tech leader. Reader. Traveller. Author. Coach.

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